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Uber成美国总统大选热门话题

2017-11-06 16:48:04编辑:谷蚓人气:



摘要:在通往下一任美国总统的竞选之路上,Uber出人意料地成为民主党和共和党候选人的热门讨论问题这场讨论事关美国人的未来就业、雇主的责任、技术的价值,以及就业监管等 SAN FRANCISCO — On the presidential campaign trail, Jeb Bush proclaims that Uber fulfills the American dream of self-sufficiency, while Hillary Rodham Clinton suggests Uber raises “hard questions” about the financial security of a modern job. Rand Paul extols Uber for revealing the obsolescence of government regulation, while Martin O’Malley argues that it exposes the need for new labor laws. After upending the American taxi industry and ushering in a new era in the on-demand economy, Uber, a ride service, is now becoming an unexpected proxy in the campaign for the White House. It has center stage in the emerging debate between the left and the right over the future of work, the responsibilities of employers, the virtues of technology and the necessity of workplace regulation. In a race already dominated by the stalled fortunes of American workers and growing income inequality, Uber is standing in as an accessible symbol of the economic aspirations and anxieties of Democrats and Republicans, in the way some practices of the giant retailer Walmart embodied them eight years ago. “It’s becoming a lightning-rod, wedge issue that candidates have to address,” said Steven Hill, the author of a coming book about Uber and the so-called sharing economy. “It has real and symbolic importance about the direction of our economy.” But in a sign of the company’s diverse, bipartisan appeal, particularly among consumers, its roster of advocates and detractors are blurring familiar demographic and ideological divisions. Republican candidates are embracing Uber not just as a paragon of their free-market ethos and distaste for entrenched, government-protected industries, but also as an electoral strategy for building bridges to traditionally Democratic cities, where the company has thrived. During his visit to the left-leaning city of San Francisco on Thursday, Mr. Bush was ferried around, fittingly, by an Uber driver, who deposited him at a campaign event in a black Toyota Camry. “Thanks for the ride!” Mr. Bush hollered as cameras snapped away. And even as Democratic candidates have expressed dismay over Uber’s treating its drivers as independent contractors instead of full-time employees who could receive health care and retirement benefits, they are reluctant to criticize the company. They fear alienating young liberal consumers whose votes they covet and technology executives whose campaign donations they rely upon. In the same breath that Mrs. Clinton worried about the financial fate of ride-sharing drivers, she praised the service’s owners for “creating exciting opportunities.” For both sides, the political allegiances of Uber and its peers in the sharing economy — companies like Airbnb, the apartment-sharing service; and TaskRabbit, an online marketplace for farming out chores — are unsettled at every level, from workers to riders. Their collective vote is up for grabs in 2016. “Right now, it’s not clear who the political winners will be,” said Sara Horowitz, the founder and executive director of the Freelancers Union, which represents workers in the new industries. “The candidates that can articulate how they are going to get more money into the pockets of these workers to make them middle class will be the ones with more traction here.” Presidential candidates are furiously courting millennials who rely on Uber — and many of them are pronouncing their adoration for the service at every turn. Mr. Rubio, a Republican senator from Florida and a loyal Uber user, went to the company’s office in Washington to denounce regulations in Miami-Dade that have technically banned the service and its rivals, like Lyft, from operating in the county (it does so anyway, enduring fines). The name of a chapter in the senator’s latest book: “Making America Safe for Uber.” Senator Paul, Republican of Kentucky whose campaign describes him as a regular Uber rider, has called the service a harbinger of an economy powered by consumer input rather than government bureaucracy. “You rate your Uber driver, your stay at a hotel,” he said recently. “As information becomes more widespread, maybe you need less and less government.” Mr. Bush, an Uber devotee, has repeatedly trumpeted the company, holding it up as the model of what happens when sclerotic industries, long shielded from competition, are challenged by innovative entrepreneurs. “We’ve all seen the battles: the taxicab companies fight against Web-enabled car services,” Mr. Bush said in a speech about the economy not long ago. “I’m not here to take sides. And I don’t think the government should, either.” Despite his enthusiasm, Mr. Bush’s Uber driver in San Francisco failed to recognize him. “I had no idea,” said Munir Algazaly, 35, who is from Yemen, and drove Mr. Bush. Democrats are less effusive about Uber, but not by much. In a statement, the campaign of Mr. O’Malley, a former governor of Maryland and an occasional Uber passenger, said he was “optimistic about companies like Uber because of their role in revitalizing cities across the country.” But he cautioned that “as companies like Uber grow and expand, we need to update our labor laws.” His proposal: making employee benefits portable, so that those who work for companies like Uber can take insurance with them, from job to job; and making it easier for such workers to organize unions. Mrs. Clinton suggested that companies like Airbnb and Uber were “unleashing innovation.” But she worried about the absence of “workplace protections” and wondered, in this new era of part-time labor, dictated by an app on a cellphone, what “a good job will look like in the future.” But Mrs. Clinton, who has yet to use the ride service, was careful not to mention Uber by name, even as she alluded to it. And her campaign team diplomatically contacted top officials at Uber to let them know about the passage in her speech that would draw attention to the service, according to people told of the conversations who were granted anonymity to discuss private conversations. Labor leaders, many of whom seemed underwhelmed with Mrs. Clinton’s remarks about the new industry, are pushing for more pointed and forceful critiques. At stake, they contend, is the economic security of workers who are uncompensated and unprotected by the traditional structures of employment, even as the owners of the technology are enriched by stock offerings. “Smarter unions and smarter Democrats are going to try to figure out a 21st-century set of policies to make sure that workers who are actually creating wealth get to share in it,” said David Rolf, the president of theService Employees International Union Local 775 in the Northwest. Interviews with several Uber drivers here suggest they are eager for greater protections, even as they celebrate the company’s flexible hours. “It is nice what Uber has done for a lot of people that need an extra job or an extra income,” said Agustin Cantu, an Uber driver of two years. But, he argued, “It needs to have some regulations in terms of how they treat the drivers and how the drivers are perceived.” For its part, Uber is making its case directly to the candidates and their aides from both parties in a series of policy briefings. The company, known for its aggressive expansion plans, is determined to convert campaigns into clients. “We hope every campaign will make Uber the transportation option of choice for their staff,” said Matt McKenna, a spokesman for the company. Uber, he added, “is in all the early primary states as well as both convention cities.” Campaigns are taking up the offer. Staff members for Senator Ted Cruz, Republican of Texas, spent $1,168.84 on the service, far more than Mrs. Clinton’s team ($219.32), but less than Mr. Bush’s ($1,396.40), according to filings made public over the last 24 hours detailing campaign spending from April through June. The winner of the 2016 Uber Primary, so far: Mr. Paul. His campaign took $1, 
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Uber成美国总统大选热门话题_u乐娱乐平台手机登录
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